Inuksuk

Inukshuk on the shore of Hudson Bay with the Anglecain Church in the background on a foggy day in Churchill

An inuksuk (plural inuksuit) is a manmade stone landmark or cairn used by the Inuit, Iñupiat, Kalaallit, Yupik, and other peoples of the Arctic region of North America. These structures are found in northern Canada, Greenland, and Alaska (United States). This combined region, above the Arctic Circle, is dominated by the tundrabiome and has areas with few natural landmarks.
The inuksuk may have been used for navigation, as a point of reference, a marker for travel routes, fishing places, camps, hunting grounds, places of worship, drift fences used in hunting, or to mark a food cache. The Iñupiat in northern Alaska used inuksuit to assist in the herding of caribou into contained areas for slaughter. The inuksuit, varying in shape and size have ancient roots in Inuit culture.
Historically, the most common types of inuksuk are built with a stone placed upon stone, and the simplest kind of which is a single stone positioned in an upright manner. There is some debate as to whether the appearance of human- or cross-shaped cairns developed in the Inuit culture before the arrival of European missionaries and explorers. The size of some inuksuit suggests that the construction was often a communal effort.
At Inuksuk Point (Enukso Point) on Baffin Island, there are over 100 inuksuit. The site was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1969.